The hamlets. 9th and 10th centuries During this time, there were more than 37 monastic places in Bierzo, such as San Pedro de Montes, San Andrés de Vega de Espinareda and Santa María de Carracedo which formed the well- known Tebaida berciana, in the Valleys of Oza and Montes, around the monasteries.
The origin of the villas, 12th and 13th centuries Grapevines predominate in the lowlands and livestock farming in the mountains.
The Military Orders of Santiago, Temple and Hospital were divided into three estates: oratores, bellatores and laboratores.
In 1178, the Templars settled in Bierzo, according to an order by Fernando II, King of León.
In the 12th century,after the feudalization, Bierzo was divided into smaller politic units called Tenencias (governed by Tenentes), which extended over the village and its alfoz.
Late Middle Ages, 14th and 15th centuries. Bierzo lived in a climate of social conflictivity. It should be noted the irmandiñas riots in which took part the Count of Lemos.
The former regime, between 16th and 18th centuries. The Marquisate of Villafranca became stronger. The consumption growth caused a industrial revolution.
The main industrial activities were the textile industry, producing 30,000 varas of canvas, mostly linen; and the foundries (mostly hydraulic) and forges which can be visited nowadays.